Glossary L-Z



Head or End lap: the distance by which one course of tiles overlaps the course below.
Side lap: the distance by which one tile interlocks with the tile beside it.

Roofing trade term for stacks of tiles around the roofs. 


The installing requirements and materials for sarking, battens, tiles and accessories etc, specified by the tiling manufacturer as sufficient to withstand the loading requirements of AS 1170.0 and AS 1170.0 Suppl 1:2000.
Mansard Roof

A roof structure with two pitches. The steep pitch commences at the eaves, and intersects with the lower pitch, which finishes at the ridge. Tiles on the lower pitch overhang the steeper pitch by a slight margin.
Mitred Hips/Valleys

Cut tiles on hips or valleys that form a true and straight line where the cut tiles join on each slope. 


Used to describe the laying of various coloured tiles at a consistent percentage throughout the roof. 


Short pieces of timber nailed between studs in a wall to brace the structure.
Parapet Wall

Usually a brick or timber structure that rises above the roof line.
Picking Up

The term used when the tiler is trowelling off any excess mortar that may overhang the ridge capping after bedding.

The angle or slope of the roof surface to the horizontal expressed either in degrees or as a ratio, eg 15° or 1:3.75.

The shape and design of the tile. 


A sloping member that extends from the eaves to the ridge of a roof to support roofing material.

Common Rafter  

: the main support rafter of the slope between eaves, wall plate and ridge.

Cripple Creeper Rafter

: the rafter connecting a hip and valley.

Crippled Jack or Broken Hip Rafter

: a rafter connecting the end of a ridge to a valley.

Hip Rafter

: a rafter following the line of the intersection of two roof planes.

Hip Creeper Rafter

: a rafter connecting a wall top plate and hip.

Jack or Crown End Rafter

: a raftyer installed at the end of a ridge and the meeting point of two hips.

Principal Rafter

: an upper member in a truss that has the same inclination as the common  

Valley Rafter

: a rafter following the line of the internal intersection of two roof surfaces.

Valley Creeper Rafter

: a rafter connecting ridge and valley.



The roof’s angle of inclination from the horizontal.

The horizontal line where two planes of a roof meet together. 

Ridge Board

The horizontal board, set on edge, at which the rafters meet. 

Ridge Capping

A roof fitting used to cover the ridge-line that can be either ‘V’ shaped or arched (rounded). This generally consists of a specifically made tile used for both the ridge and hips of a roof.
Rigid Pointing

A mixture of clean sand, cement and oxide colouring or pre-mixed flexible material, used for the completion of joints between ridge or hips and with roof tiles or tiles at gable ends.

A covering to protect a building from the elements.
Roof Tile

A concrete or terracotta product used to cover the field of the roof.
Sarking/Underlay and Underlay/Sarking

A reflective, pliable membrane that is installed under the tile battens and conforms to AS/NZS 4200.1. (Underlay is not reflective in New Zealand and has an absorbency rating of 100g/m2) 

Sawtooth Roof

A roof structure that is vertical on one side with a slope down from the ridge line on the other. 

Scribe Board

A type of bargeboard shaped to match the overhanging profile formed by the under surface of roof tiles that overhang a gable end. The tiles are pointed up on the interlocking joints.
Secret Gutter

A gutter usually fixed against a wall adjoining the roof slopes, concealed by the roof covering and vertical wall flashing, then spilling into an eaves gutter.

A close boarding or other material nailed to the framework of a wall or roof. Sometimes referred to as sheeting. 


The term for a pitched roof with one plane. 


A glazed window or translucent roof section fitted parallel to the roof slope to admit light.

The lining installed under the eaves between the fascia board and external wall. 

Soffit Bearer

Timber or metal used to support the soffit.
Staggered Bond

The method of laying tiles where the vertical joint of every tile is laid to overlap with a half bond of the tiles in the course below.
Starter / Shell End

The first hip cap at the lowest point of the hip line.
Steel Battens

Steel battens must be designed in accordance with, AS 2050.2, 2.2 and manufactured from metallic coated steel with a minimum coating class of Z275 or AS 150 in accordance with AS 1397. In corrosive areas, advice should be sought from the manufacturer.

A bitumen impregnated foam strip used to weatherproof areas of roof to prevent water penetration during storms, can be flexible pointed.
Straight Bond

Where tiles are not staggered but are laid directly on top of the tile in the course below, so that the vertical joints form one straight line up the slope of the roof.

A vertical wall support.
Tile Clip

A specially formed metal fastening used to secure tiles to supporting members. 
Tilting Batten

Serves the same purpose as a bellcast batten.
Top Plate

The horizontal member above a wall on which the truss or rafter sits. 

Truss Roofs

A roof supported by self-supporting, triangulated structural framework which is, usually prefabricated and delivered to the job site. This type of construction is commonly used for all types of roofs.
Under Purlin

A horizontal member in a roof at right angles to the principal rafters or trusses. It carries the common rafters. 

Upright Work

Tiling carried out on a roof pitched close to vertical, normally on a façade or a mansard roof. 

The internal angle formed by the meeting of two sloping surfaces of a roof; the opposite of a hip. A valley tray is installed in this area to direct water to the gutter.
Valley Batten

A tiling batten fixed parallel to each side of the valley board. It must be fixed on all valleys when the roof is

Valley Iron / Valley Tray

A "V" shaped sheet lipped on each outside edge and formed to fit into the angle of a valley.

Any pipe or tube protruding through the roof covering, normally circular in shape. 


The edge of a sloping roof which overhangs a gable.

A small hole inserted in the ridge bedding and pointing mortar creating a water channel for draining purposes. 

Z Flashing

Normally a galvanised strip with an internal lip fixed under the fibre cement verge strip to allow water to run into the gutter.   

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